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Mineral Groups

Minerals Groups.

There are thousands of Minerals on earth.

12 main groups of families, based on the chemicals they contain.

                                                                    1.   Native Elements.

Most minerals are made from combinations of chemical elements, but a few elements, such as silver, gold, and sulphur, occur naturally by themselves. These are known as native elements.

                                                    2.  Sulpides.

Sulphur combines with metal to form sulphides. They form near geothermal springs or in veins with quartz. Sulpides include cinnabar and pyrite.

                                                   3.      Sulphosalts.

This is a  group of 200 rare minerals that form when sulphur combines with a metal ( silver, copper, lead, or iron) and a semi-metal (arsenic or antimony)

                                                       4.  Oxides.

Oxides form when oxygen combines with metals. They include ores (minerals from which metals are extracted) and Gems.

                                                   5.  Hydroxides

These minerals form when a metallic element combines with hydrogen and oxygen. These minerals are less dense than oxides and tend to be softer. Hydroxides are also important ore minerals. They include bauxite, which is an ore of aluminium.

                                              6.  Halides.

In these soft minerals, metals combine with chlorine, bromine, fluorine, or iodine. For example, sylvite is a combination of potassium and chlorine.

                                           7.    Carbonates.

These form when carbon and oxygen combine with metals. Carbonates are soft and dissolve easily in acidic substances.

                               8.  Phosphates,arsenates, and Vanadates.

These rare minerals are grouped together because they have a similar structure, made up of oxygen combined with phosphorus, arsenic, or vanadium. They often have vivid colours

                                         9.  Borates and Nitrates.

Borates from when a metallic element combines with boron and oxygen, When nitrogen and oxygen combine with a metallic element, nitrates are formed.                    

                                        10.Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates, Tungstates.

 Around 200 Minerals make up this large group. They share a similar structure and elements-oxygen, combined with a metal or semi-metal. These minerals are dense brittle, and may be vividly coloured.



                                                                 11. Silicates.

This group makes up a quarter of all minerals. As well as being common, silicates such as feldspar and quartz are important rock-forming minerals. Other Silicates include mica,garnet, and natrolite. All Silicates contain silicon and oxygen.

                                                12 .Organic Minerals.

These are a group of minerals that form from living things, and may not have a crystal structure. Amber Coral, and Pearl are organic Gems. Amber forms from resin of conifer trees, coral from sea creatures, and pearl comes from certain shellfish and oysters.
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